Ivan Zamorano

Acupunture Treatment

Gandhi’s Global Legacy – Keynote 3: Nipun Mehta

(upbeat music) – Good afternoon. I know everyone is tired a bit, but I hope the conference
has been fruitful and I can hear lot of conversations and we had even the concurrent sessions
were amazing, right? So, you know, we started yesterday and I was so nervous before it. I mean, I lost my sleep. I usually don’t lose my
sleep on many things. But I was up at 4 o’clock and I say, “Oh, I have not called the videographer, “I have not called this, “I haven’t called this, you know, snacks or whatever.” So we are here now, and after this we’ll have a concert around 7:30, and speakers can meet us outside. Okay, so then we can walk together. And thank you so much. So people are thanking me. I want to thank our scholars and guests who came long distances. I know you all are very busy and it’s not easy to pick up and leave. So we really, really appreciate, Fresno State appreciates you. (Veena and audience applauds) So there is a lot of work goes behind the scenes as you know. And my helpers, my Susan Lam, who came all the way from
Hawaii to help me out. My dear friend. (laughs)
(audience applauds) And Aruta Preesia will
be there at the dinner. I mean, our DEA, I mean, amazing. Without her, I could not have done it. And Benjamin Kirk. Oh my goodness. I made his life hard. He’ll be so happy. (laughs) (audience applauds) And Eric, who is recording and diligently putting up with a lot of technology issues.
(audience applauds) And above all, our students. They will be there tonight,
so I’ll thank them there. But they have been
amazing group of students who have been sitting and, you know, manning the tables, and doing
all that was needed for me. So, again, thanks to our student, thanks to our community, my colleagues, who are,
every session was moderated by one of of our colleagues. And so, it’s amazing though. It took a whole community
to get it all together. So they all deserve thank
you, not just me. (claps) (audience applauds) One announcement, Ela Gandhi, Gandhi’s granddaughter,
is coming to Fresno State, so Gandhi’s celebration
continues. (laughs) Continues October 14 at the North Gym. And if you are a student
or, you know, can come, whoever, please do attend. Again, the event is free to public. Do come, and support Dr. Kapoor, and also enjoy the lecture. Okay, let’s now, this afternoon’s, the last keynote is by Nipun Mehta. I didn’t know whether we would get him. He is so busy and so well sought after. But he kindly agreed to my invitation, or accepted our invitation and he’s here. He’s such an inspiring figure. I told my students, if you can,
please do come to his talk. And if you can go online
and he’s all over the web. He’s just such a, I feel inspired by him. And I’m sure he’ll just
really do a great closing for this conference. So Nipun Mehta is the
founder of ServiceSpace.org. You can check. An incubator of projects
that support a gift culture. I just love that. You know, we like receiving
gifts on Christmas or ever. And he has really create, want
to create a culture of gifts, where we can have rejoicing all the time. In his mid-twenties, Nipun quit his job. In mid-twenties, I mean, it’s okay if you quit in forties
or fifties, but twenties? That’s cool, we want to
hear more about that. How are you doing? (laughs) And he became a full-time volunteer. And over the last 15 years,
his work has reached millions, attracted more than 500,000 volunteers, and mushroomed into numerous projects, like Daily Good, Awakin Circles, and Karma Kitchens. Among his many prestigious accolades, President Obama appointed him on a council for social change. The Dalai Lama recognized him as an unsung hero of compassion. One of his most formative experiences was a walking pilgrimage
across India with his wife. Nipun’s mission statement
in his life reads, “Bring smiles in the world,
and stillness in the heart.” Thank you so much. Please help me welcome, Nipun Mehta.
(audience applauds) – I am so happy to be here. But I feel like, you know like a student is giving a presentation
and all the professors are gonna check the work,
so I don’t know how. I’m not a Gandhian scholar, but I have been a great fan of Gandhi and somebody who’s tried to implement a lot of his
values into modern context. So I wanna tell you a little bit. I’m from the Silicon Valley. So we like to put version
numbers on everything, you know. So we don’t spare Gandhi
either, at least I don’t. And I’ll tell you more about
what I mean by Gandhi 3.0. But I want to start off a little
bit about the Gandhi part, and how I see him and his
role in our world today. I had the good fortune of,
I have the good fortune of earlier today we were
talking about Gandhi and being in his presence. I’ve had the good fortune
of being with many people who knew Gandhi personally,
who spent decades with Vinoba, who was Gandhi’s successor in India. This was one of them, he was
just here in April, Arun Dada. You know, in his early
twenties, he met Vinoba, and he says, “My life is dedicated to him, “and for decades he was with him.” Now this guy, if I had to
introduce him in one sentence, it would be that he never
sold his labor in his life. And you think about that, he
had family, he had two kids, and you say, oh, how
is that even possible? How can you not sell your labor? And he says, well, whenever
you give, genuinely give, you create a bond, you create an affinity. And if you have enough of
those affinities, you are held. And he’s clearly a living example of it. And this was something that Gandhi and Vinoba spoke a lot about. But then you ask him these questions about Gandhi and Vinoba, you notice that even the doubtful, sort of child-like questions, non-violence, can it really work, like if people are holding out guns, and he’ll tell you stories. He says, “Yeah, I was part of
the Shanti Sena, peace army. “And so we would go in the regions where, “you know, two sides are fighting.” And he gave us this
example, he’s in Cyprus, where the Greeks and
the Turks are fighting. He goes in, he doesn’t know the language, he doesn’t know anything. All he’s armed with is love. And he walks in, and he’s living there, he’s hosted by a whole
bunch of local folks, and he sets, you know
these right in the morning at some point he was gonna
go up to the, a hill, to do his prayers. And these two kids come up with guns. And they don’t know who he is, he looks foreign, the don’t
know what to do with him, do you shoot, do you not? And Arun Dada, that’s his name, Arun Dada looks at the
kids without any fear, and he kind of pats them in the eyes, you know, pats them on the head, and he’s like, oh you kids with guns, oh you guys with violence, you think that’s gonna solve anything. No, you guys, I’m gonna
bless you no matter what. And the kids don’t know
what to do with this, like, sweet old man. They don’t do anything. He goes up, finishes his prayers. And by the time he comes
down, true story, this guy, goes out, these two kids
go out to their huts, bring a whole bunch of peanuts, and make an offering to this man. He took that fear, composted it, in the hearts of others, and turned it into an offering
of love, through peanuts. And you look at that, and
you’re like, that’s crazy. Like, how do you do that? And he says, “This is
the power of Soul Force.” And you say, okay, oh I need
to learn a little bit more. What’s going on? What is this whole phenomena? What is the power of love? We tend to reduce love
to sentimentality, right? Because that’s what you see of love, is like Hollywood, Bollywood,
if you’re in India. But having been with
a lot of these people, I think it helps us raise these questions. And to your point, Mary, you were saying, like how do you create a new world order, while staying in the old? How do you see the possibilities? I think that’s a really
important question. But one of the main things, that I’ve been around
many Gandhian scholars, and also people living it, and there’s this very
significant distinction. Because when you read Gandhi on paper, and you say how do you solve this problem, people will give you theoretical answers. But their entire
consciousness is not embedded in actually responding,
just their head is. So when you look at some of these people, there’s a very key point of sort of bifurcation that happens. When you ask, what happens, when you ask a scholar, I don’t
know what they would think. But when you ask a living,
practicing embodiment of sort of Soul Force,
someone who has tried, maybe not to the extent
of Gandhi or Vinoba, but to their own extent,
when you ask them, what happens when a Satyagraha fails? When we try, we say, I see this injustice, I want to solve this problem, I want the world to be my kind of view. What happens if that fails? A practicing Satyagrahi, somebody who is embodying
this as a way of life, will say, if that doesn’t work, you make your Satyagrah gentler. And if the gentler Satyagrah doesn’t work, you make it even gentler, even subtler. Not, oh, this didn’t work, okay, these guys are never gonna fix themselves, so let me get a bigger hammer, let me get even a bigger hammer, which is usually, subtly, what we do, what we try to manipulate. But these living folks
tell us the other way. And I think, I’ll, let’s see, okay, I’ve got, like amazing, where I get excited about these stories, because I personally get excited, I don’t know if you’ll get excited. But this is a story of gentleness. One of my friends, in brief, he was a martial artist, and he got into a fight, he had to, his opponent was somebody much bigger, and so he kept running around, and this guy is like chasing him. So his coach takes him out, and he says, “Okay, take this rock, “throw it as far as you can.” And he’s like, summons all of his thing, and throws it, really far. He says, “Take this leaf,
throw it as far as you can.” And he says that if you
see the world as a rock, if it is solid, if it is material, you are going to respond in
a very gross violent way, in a coercive way, in a way
of domination, me versus you. If you see it as a
leaf, all of the sudden, your response is going
to be very different. And so what happens,
how do we, can we create this sort of critical mass
of this kind of gentleness, this kind of subtlety of
love that was Soul Force? My wife and I went on this
walking pilgrimage across India, and to your point again, Mary, various things you said
yesterday really landed for me. To your point, you said,
“There’s so many people, “so many projects that
haven’t been documented.” That the real impact of Gandhi, we tend to think of as independence, but I would beg to differ. I mean, that’s just what’s documented, that’s just what’s visible, that’s just what’s like the
stone that you can’t miss, but actually, he was
working at so many levels, and so many dimensions, and
when you walk across India, like I did, like my wife did, and we would walk and eat
whatever food is offered, and sleep wherever place is offered, you meet these remarkable
gems, and you ask them, man, you have dedicated your
life, nobody knows who you are, you are just serving for the
love of it, what inspired you? And they will say, “Oh man,
there was that one time “when Gandhi was passing
through, and I saw him, “and I was like, oh, there’s
some substance there, “I want to be like that when I grow up.” And for the next 60 years, they do that. And this is not one person. You, I’m willing to bet, that none of you have heard
of any of these people, or the dozens more that we met that have just dedicated their lives. It’s not even that
they’re everyday heroes, because when you say everyday heroes, you’re comparing them to
the non-everyday heroes. But these guys, just
like doing their shtick, they’re living it, and that living is reward in and of itself. So I think there’s Gandhi the leader, and you can keep on debating. Did he give in too much on this side? Did he give in too much to these folks? Should he have done more? Should he have, is this the right stance in between? And you can debate if that makes you, if you’re jazzed by
that kind of an inquiry, fantastic, go for it. But for me, what really
inspires me about Gandhi, is he looked at social change. And we usually look and say, he let’s create political change, and that will create social change. And we look at bottom up,
and we say social change will then create political change. But Gandhi went one notch deeper. Not only bottom up from
social to political, but he actually said that
before you get to social, you hae to start from inner change. Inner change creates social change, which then ripples into, and that inner change is so significant. And what I love about
him is Gandhi the man. This man was seeking to be,
and continuing to seek to be, be the change. When a reporter asked him,
“What’s your message?” It was a Monday, it
was his day of silence, and he takes the reporter’s pen and paper, he’s like, my life is my message. How many people can actually say that? His work is not his message. His words are not his message. What the actions he did
are not his message. The experiments he might have
succeeded in or failed in or too ludicrous to even
name kind of experiments was not his message. His life was his message. His presence was his message. And yet we kind of
reduce him and cheapen it to just saying, oh well, he just created this kind of change. That happened. Surely, he was a part of it. But there was a lot more to him. And so I’m inspired by that. And I think he said this, he actually technically didn’t say this, what he said was something
even deeper than, “You must be the change you
wish to see in the world.” He says, “We but mirror
the world around us. “The tendencies present in the outer world “are to be found inside.” This is why he says inside
change goes to outside, which then ripples into systemic change. Because he knew this at a very deep level. How many of us usually look
at problems on the outside and say oh, where is in my body? Unless you have a keen sense of awareness, that question even doesn’t make sense. But for Gandhi, that made perfect sene. And he says, “If we
could change ourselves, “then we change the
tendencies, and the world. “So as a man changes his own nature, “so does the attitude of the
world change towards him. “This is the divine mystery.” He says, “I can’t explain
this, but I’m living it, “and this is what I see.” Now that was Gandhi the man. Those were his experiments,
and that ignited Soul Force. You’ve probably heard of Eknath Easwaran, you heard his Badshah Khan reference. Eknath Easwaran, if you hear his story, when Gandhi would fast, he barely saw Gandhi in like, a crowd. He never actually met Gandhi one on one. But Eknath Easwaran sees
Gandhi, or not sees Gandhi, he hears that, oh Gandhi is fasting. Even if he doesn’t hear
it, he cannot eat himself. That Gandhi had this effect. I’m fasting. I’m in a whole different
part of the world. You may or may not even agree with all the things that I’m doing, but you feel like fasting. What is the power of that? This is Einstein, whom
we heard various times, such great respect for
Gandhi, and he says, “500 years, we won’t even
know who this man was.” This is Tagore, who disagreed with him, but he says, “Man, I disagreed
with a lot of what he says,” and he said it publicly,
disagreed with him, but he says you cannot call him Gandhi, you have to call him Mahatma. A great soul. This is Ramana Maharshi. Had no explicit social change. He was just sitting there,
like a saintly person. Not just sitting there. If we could all just sit there like, the world would be very different place. But he was a man who was not
very attached to many things. When people are like, oh
when you die, you know, what are we gonna do? And he would look at them
and he says, “Who dies?” This sense of I is the
biggest problem that you have, and that’s why you keep suffering. So this man was not really worried about all the worldly mundane things. Yet when Gandhi’s assassinated,
he has tears in his eyes. Is he gonna miss Gandhi? Or is he what, what
does he have tears for? Dalai Lama, of course. Dedicating his Nobel Peace Prize. Dalai Lama when he’s a teenager
goes to Gandhi’s grave. That’s actually where
he got his inspiration. He had a vision at Gandhi’s grave. And he says, “I’d have
to embrace nonviolence.” Obama of course had
great respect for Gandhi, had a photo of him in his office. And I think that Soul
Force is what gets Gandhi to write something like this. He says, “Dear friend, “That I address you as a
friend is no formality. “I own no foes. “My business in life has
been for the past 33 years “to enlist the friendship
of the whole of humanity “by befriending mankind,
irrespective of race, color, or creed.” That was his letter to Hitler. That’s how it started. This was the second one, I think in 1940. And of course, that we have
two polar extremes, you know, opposite ends of the spectrum
in terms of approach. And Gandhi says, “Dear friend.” He’s like, by the way,
I’m not just saying that. So, you know, I can tell you a lot more about how Gandhi fasted. A lot of people think,
oh, fasting is coercion. Of course it is coercion. I mean, a man of deep nonviolence is not gonna say, oh, well,
you guys should agree, if you don’t I’m gonna
blackmail you by fasting. But, why was Gandhi fasting? What was his logic, what
was going on through him? Turns out, Vinoba explicitly asked him. And he says, “Oh I listen,
my inner voice told me.” And so Vinoba, a very
mathematical guy, he says, “Well what do ya mean, inner voice?” Like, how do ya, why 21? You fasted for 21 days. Why 21 days, why not 20? Why not 22? And he says, “That’s what
my inner voice told me.” And that inner voice, this Salt March. Narayan Desai, Gandhi’s secretary’s son, who spent time with Gandhi, was the one who told me the story. Narayan Desai says two weeks
before the Gandhi march, Tagore happens to be
going past the ashram. And Tagore says, “Hey, the
whole country is waiting to see “what you’re gonna say,
what you’re gonna do.” Right? The British are like,
oh, wise guys, scheming, he must have think tanks, what’s he doing? He’s got like, he had access
to everybody in the country. He’s like, what are they
doing, the next steps? You know what he tells Tagore? He says, “I don’t know the next steps. “But you can be sure that I’m praying.” Gandhi’s strategy was a tad bit different than how we might strategize
in a situation like this when you’ve got 350 million people looking to say, “Hey, what do we do next?” He’s sitting there praying. But the challenge of course, one of my friends comes up to me, he knows how much of a fan of Gandhi I am, and he comes up to me, and he says, “You know
Nipun, Gandhi had it easy.” I said, “Okay, say more.” He says, “Gandhi had it relatively easy.” He says, “I admire Gandhi, but you know, “in his time, you could spot the opponent, “because they didn’t look like him.” He says, “You know, you
looked at Rosa Parks, “yeah, you can spot by her
skin color what’s going on.” You go a little farther,
this is Tiananmen Square. This is Mr. Anonymous Man. Such a powerful example of resisting. He was a teacher. But we don’t really know his name. Still, we can spot him. This becomes a little harder. This is the first glacier to melt. Larsen C, that’s the name of this glacier. You’re like, oh, global,
gah, climate change, oh, where did it start? What’s that one cause that fixes it? We haven’t been able to fix it. Inequality. People in this golf cart, eight men, own more financial wealth
than the bottom 3.5 billion. It’s a system, we’re all in the system, when we engage with it. Nobody likes it, but this is
what the end product of it is. This is what I was with
the best of the folks, smartest folks in the country, l ooking at addressing
poverty and inequality in this country, at the White House. Nobody really knows how
to solve inequality. It’s getting worse and worse. And you’d think it would stop here. I used to quote this when it was like 160 or whatever people. And it’s like, you know, it
just got worse and worse, and then it was like, not just people, it was just eight men. And you would think it will stop here, but now technology’s gonna
give us even more leverage. And so where are we gonna go with this? You look at a tomato. The two tomatoes look the
same, not quite as easy. But one of them is genetically modified. You go even one step further. This is Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, announcing a multi-billion dollar takeover of Oculus Rift, this virtual VR game. Therein, he’s announcing
this grand big thing. And guess what? No one’s even looking at him. (audience laughs) They released this. This is not like some selfie, right. They’re, Facebook
themselves is releasing it, and saying, “Look, this is
where, you know, it’s like.” So now it gets even more subversive. ‘Cause we refresh our
screens 2,600 times a day. We don’t even know it. But they’ve studied rats. Then they create all
these different patterns, and you keep on, you keep
on going on this treadmill. And you say, “Wow, where’s
the opponent there?” It’s all happening inside me. And you go one step further, I saw this in the Washington
Post just a couple weeks ago. “Hey, Google. “Let me talk to my departed father.” And you say, oh, what do you mean? Turns out, that when I
SMS you, when I text you, if instead I go through this machine, and then when you pass away, this machine kind of knows
how you would respond, and so it responds directly,
as if I’m talking to my dad, who’s passed away. Okay. Is that really gonna ignite Soul Force? To design for permanence? Or should we actually embrace
change, and impermanence? And go with nature? And these are multi-billion
dollar companies, right? This is their, this is
one of the companies featured in the Washington Post article. Never lose someone you love. This is another company, Eternime. Who wants to live forever? Like this is mainstream, this is where billions
of dollars are going, to support this kind of a worldview. And so you start, you sort
of start and end here. That we design who we are. We be the change, what
change are we being? And this is where Gandhi
has so much to offer. This is where Gandhi has
incredible amount to offer. That there is this great suffering that is happening in the world. But with that suffering, in this infinity, there is the possibility
for great compassion. But the Gandhian approach to it was you don’t build on the
foundation a military, the government, the state. Somebody asked the question the other day. You don’t build on the
foundation a markets. Dolores, this morning,
talked about volunteerism. But she sadly said that
that was Cesar’s vision, but it died with him. So we don’t know, right? What are the great examples
of Gandhian social change that are beyond the market? You’d be hard pressed to find any. And media. Not communication in the way you said it. I read your article, which is beautiful. Not communication, because Gandhi was a great
communicator, obviously. But this mass media,
which is so sensational. Which is so one after
another after a third. And which is broadcast. And when you’re broadcasting,
and when I pander to that, it changes the way in which you design. If you keep pandering to
that kind of a mindset, you’re not gonna be able to
create a field of Soul Force, because you start devolving. And we know where we land with that. So these three Ms, right. But they exist in the world,
so we can’t ignore them. But what Gandhi would do is compost them. Compost means you’re
putting it under the ground. So you know, the fruit is
what you talk about, right? You talk about the mangoes,
but you don’t talk about, like, what’s the fertilizer? So how do you learn to compost it and keep it under the ground? That you don’t lead with that. You lead with love. You lead with Soul Force. You lead with nonviolence. You lead with great compassion, in the presence of suffering. So really, this is money, power, and fame. And so most of us would be hard-pressed, that if you didn’t have power,
if you didn’t have money, if you don’t lead with fame,
then what would you do, and how would you do it? Because even to hold this question seems so radical, seems so out there. You’re like, wait, that’s
not, how is that possible? Sort of like when Arun Dada
that comes and tells you, “I’ve never sold my labor.” Guess what? My mom has never sold her
labor when giving to me either. So we all know of it. Nine months of free labor is how we all come into
this world, no exceptions. We didn’t have a transaction. And yet, at some point, we start believing that if I don’t do quid pro
quo, it’s not gonna really work. I won’t survive. And you’re like, wait a
second, is that crazy story, or is Arun Dada’s story crazy. So how do you start to
compost these things? And, you know, I won’t go into these, because you all already know the stories of how Gandhi would take, you know, the military example, and
turn him into a friend. And this friend, whom
he defeated Jan Smuts, says, “Man, what an honor
to have lost to you. “That you were my antagonist.” Markets, you know, this
is where Gandhi died with, these are his possessions when he died. And the media. When he wrote “The Story of
My Experiments With Truth,” he sent the first book
to Vinoba, his buddy. And he’s like, hey,
what do you think, man? Give me a little 4-1-1 on, like
what’s the book, it’s good? Vinoba says, “Well I don’t
think you can hurt anybody.” You’re like, nice to have
you as a friend, Vinoba. (audience laughs) You know, at least give it
a little encouraging word. No, nothing? And you know what Gandhi’s
response to that was? He says, “Good, because the sole purpose “of all this is to be zero.” He’s not trying to be somebody. He’s not trying to create,
like, be the next, dawn of, he’s actually trying to be zero. Who writes an article to try to be zero? Who writes a book, who leads a
country, to leave it at zero? But this man, only such a
man, would have no security. It was very easy to assassinate Gandhi. Many people tried before Godse. But he refused to have any protection. He says, “Look, if you’re
gonna assassinate me, “the joke’s on you. “Because what am I gonna do? “I’m gonna bless you, because that’s what I do all the time. “That’s my practice.” That’s what I did with Hitler, that’s what I do with my critics, that’s what I do with my opponents. Go ahead, come right in. Everyone knows, six o’clock, prayer time. Very easy to find him, he refused to. So media, all right. So I’m gonna address, touch a little bit on the Gandhi 3.0 part. So this is Gandhi. This is Gandhi that we
all know, we all love. Maybe you parse it a
little bit differently. This for me, is how I parse Gandhi, and it’s been very inspiring for me, to even attempt to bring this
much of it in my own life. But now the question is, how do we apply it in our current era? And I think in the times
of Gandhi, we call it, I think of it as Gandhi 1.0. That one of him, many of us. You look at him on the stage, and you say, “Oh my god, like that’s a godly man, “I could never be like
that, I’m gonna follow.” That’s not probably not
what he would have wanted. Not probably, definitely not. Post him, we know about Bhave. All of you, if you went to Anshu’s session you would know that, you
would know all about Vinoba. He did unprecedented. Right, we fight for decades
over small pieces of land. Here’s this man who had the
audacity to walk into a village and he says, “Hey brother, you know, “if you have a lot of land,
and your other brother, “your other sister doesn’t have land, “why don’t you give it?” And the logic was, that
if you had five kids, what would you do with your
extra land when you passed away? I would distribute it amongst the five. He says, “Would you adopt
me as your sixth son?” “And I want the 1/6th of your land. “I want you to give it over there.” And that 1/6th added up
to five million acres. Absolutely unprecedented in human history. Who even has the audacity to go in? No market, no media,
no military, just love. And these are, like, if
you hear these stories in some mythical thing, you might be like, oh yeah, okay, really? But these are people that we know. These are people that we have access to. People who walked with him. There are so many people that I know who walked with him on this pilgrimage. And they were like, wow, really? This is how it works, it’s just love? Yeah, this is Soul Force. But what Vinoba did, is he could have been the
giant leader that Gandhi was, because Gandhi had huge respect for him. In fact, a lot of deference
on spiritual topics. He would say, “Go to Vinoba if you have
a spiritual question.” But Vinoba walked village to village. And what he did was not a one to many. He did one to one. And what both of them talked about, Gandhi less so, but Vinoba explicitly, said that now that we are in the future, we’re gonna see Gandhi 3.0. They didn’t say Gandhi 3.0. But in Vinoba’s words,
he says, “What goes up.” Oh, this is Vinoba. Vinoba doing one to one, heart to heart. What he said was, “What
goes up as a fountain “must come down as distributed drops.” He says what we have done here, this giant sort of pilgrimage, has awakened this kind of a Soul Force. And it will spread,” he said, “from Jai Hind, victory to India, and the Hind, the region in India, to Jay Jagat, glory to the planet.” And he said that that glory, that resurgence will be many
to many, not one to one. So to put it in another
context, to give you a visual, this is one to many. This is one to one. And this is many to many. A network theory. I’m bringing a little bit
of my Silicon Valley hat. Network theory tells you,
that in a one to many, all right, one of me,
fifty of us, fifty of you, how many connections would you have? 50. Right? In one to one, a lot of people get greedy about
connecting with each other, let’s (whispers), let’s do
that, that’s great, okay. Business settings, you
people do that a lot. It’s Metcalfe’s Law, one to one, you have 1,225 connections,
room full of just 50 people. In a many to many network,
what you see on the internet, is Reed’s Law, in a room
full of just 50 people, where you have group-forming network, the number of connections, unit connections that are
possible is 100 million trillion. You cannot try to pocket this. Only a man of grace, a man of surrender, a woman of grace, a woman of surrender, is able to hold all of this. So what it requires, another visual on it, is to go from centralized, to
decentralized, to distributed. And we have tried this, of course, this is not a new phenomena, because we have tried this for profit. We have tried this for protest too. Right, Arab Spring, no
central leader, no money. No, you know, people didn’t
know where it started, and it created monumental change. But that was for protest. We haven’t done it for Soul Force. We haven’t done it for love. And that’s the call of the hour. Can we actually ignite? If you look at that distributed network, what happens when those bonds? You can do it for protest,
if you can do it for profit, you can do it for greed,
you can do it for anger. But those bonds are not gonna be as deep. Even between us, right? We say, let’s create a startup together. Let’s do this, I scratch
your back, you scratch mine. Okay, we can have a connection. Or let’s say we both hate
this person together. You can have a connection. Not gonna be as deep as if you say, let’s serve others together. And what is a network exponential effect of that kind of change? And so, to hold this, we talk about this idea of
leadership to laddership. I’ll skip it, but it’s actually
significantly different. You go from plan and execute
to search and amplify. It’s no longer about planning, because plan and execute means,
this is my five-year plan, this is how we’re gonna execute. That’s the old school way. But now, things are moving so fast, that if you create a five-year plan and you’re Facebook, you’re already out. You’re done, man, because in two years, everything’s changing. So in that era of rapid change, plan and execute no longer makes sense. So search and amplify. But how are you gonna search? You have to have the eyes. So being the change gives you the eyes in which you look at all this. So there’s a lot to
unpack with laddership. And we do these laddership circles with people from all around the world, but I’ll leave you with
three sort of core shifts, all right, that we’ve been practicing. So ServiceSpace is this
ecosystem of projects that aim to create a gift culture. We do lots of projects and
it reaches lots of people. You can check it all out online. But if you ask me, well,
okay, what are the core shifts from our experience of
20 years of doing this? I would leave you with this, first thing is to shift
from money to wealth. That we tend equate money equals wealth. That’s not quite true. Money is a form of wealth, but there are so many forms of wealth. And how do you start to
really tap in to this. There’s a beautiful
story of Mother Teresa. I’ll skip it, in the interests of more dialog with all of you. This is a guy whose son was autistic, and it took him a long time
to recover from that hit. At the age of 36, Ferose, Muslim guy, at the age of 36, he had 5,000 people reporting under him at
SAP, right? Real hot shot. And then he has a autistic child, and he doesn’t know what to do. He’s totally confused
and lost and depressed. And then he realizes this is his calling. And he goes and he hires five people on the autistic spectrum. And he realizes that, well, wait a second, they never lie, they’re never
late, they don’t get bored. Oh, why had I just looked at their lacks? They actually have a lot of talents. And he became a Harvard case study. And now so many Fortune 500 companies are embracing his pledge. Really remarkable, but what he teaches us, is that there are so
many kinds of capital. But we have no markets. For money, we do so many things to move all these things around. But for, you know, what are
we doing for time capital? All right, what are we doing
for compassion capital? Do we even know what culture capital is? There are so many question
marks that come up. But this is a whole different
conversation to be had. And you know, there’s a
lot more to unpack there, but how do we encourage
multiple forms of wealth? Multiple forms of capital? How do we design for that? Veena said, you know, oh Gandhi
kept rich people around him. I would augment that to say even rich people flocked to Gandhi, because they were like man, this dude is able to do stuff
without the power of money. Money is compost, he’s using it. But if he really wanted money, he had the country’s
richest people telling him, Bajajs of the world saying,
hey, adopt me as your son, I want to give you everything. Instead he goes village to village to get, like, one earring from a villager, which is the only thing he had. Is that good use of your time,
if all you’re after is money? Gandhi was not after money, but Gandhi knew that there
are so many forms of capital that we need to unlock,
and he designed for that. The second thing is to go
from broadcast to deepcast. And you’re like, ah, I’ve
never heard the word deepcast. I hadn’t either until Arun Dada told me. ‘Cause people would go to Vinoba and says, “Oh, you’re doing amazing things.” Attenborough at least
made a film on Gandhi. Nobody’s even made a film,
a proper film on Vinoba. And yet he did something so remarkable. So all these, like, whiz
kids would go up to Vinoba, and said, “Ah, you know,
that’s kind of great. “But wouldn’t it be great
if you used marketing “and you had this plan
and then you did this “and you did that?” And he says, you know what he says? He says, “The wind is
my, are my volunteers. “The rivers will carry my message. “Everything is alive in the universe, “and I am connected to all of it.” And what Arun Dada says
is that this is deepcast. And most of us, you go to young people, you say, okay, what’s your
communication strategy? And you look at this, and you’re like, oh, that’s so far out, what do you mean? Like, you gotta be on social media, and you gotta, and you do. Yes, but we’ve seen how shallow that goes. And we’ve seen to the question that someone asked Dr.
Lawson yesterday, right. We’ve seen how shallow it
feels, even for the person, this bypass that we do with clicktivism. So what does it mean to go
from broadcast to deepcast? I have great stories of this guy. I’ll spare you the stories
in the interest of time. But he went, at Occupy
Oakland he was meditating, and he got arrested, because they were
stepping up the violence, the first place in Oakland, where, you know, the showdown happened. They had choppers everywhere, it was like a world media event. It was like everybody’s there. And they arrest Pancho. And Pancho’s one of our core volunteers, and a real brother for me as well. And they arrest Pancho, and his offense reads, “Disturbing Peace.” (audience laughs) This was the photo that was
on world news everywhere. And he recently walked
to the Mexico border, as an undocumented person. And he says, “you don’t
need to come get me, “I’m coming to you, man.” And he climbs up the wall, and he puts a one earth flag on it. He says, “I don’t believe
in these boundaries.” And he speaking to the whole machine. And no one knows about him, because he says he doesn’t do media. ‘Cause he went out, and he started to do, you know, New York Times did this story, because the media’s so
subversive nowadays. They looked at him in the
middle of an interview, and Pancho’s like, oh, can
you say that in another way? And Pancho’s like, no,
this is how I say it. And they refused to do the story on him, because it didn’t fit
their paradigm, right? So Pancho, in a way, is
this very ultra-radical, sure, he may not. But he is a guy, if you ask him, hey, what difference does this make? You walked all the way,
93 days from Oakland, without money, just
based on relationships, all the way to the U.S.-Mexico border. Now he’s in Tijuana. And you said, what
difference has that made? Nobody even knows what you’re doing. And he says, “Really? Let’s see in 500 years. Is broadcast gonna survive? Or is deepcast gonna survive?” And it’s gonna be deepcast. So how do we scale on alternate metrics? Doesn’t mean broadcast is useless. But we do have to kind of couple it with a deeper sort of deepcast. I think there’s a very real
thing that happens there. And lastly, I would say, we need to move from transaction to trust. This is the problem with money. It transactionalizes everything. You take a look at a
multidimensional relationship you and I might have. You give me something, I
give you something back. But, if we start keeping track, and you say, “Okay, I
got these many ounces of neural sort of dopamine hits and you got these many, you know, this much release of
oxytocin in your body, and okay, now we’re measuring how.” You know, you can do all
that kind of mathematics. Or you can just engage in a
multidimensional relationship. Unfortunately, money is really good at turning everything into a transaction. It helps us strip out relationships. And when you strip out
relationships, you have no trust. This is another problem that society simply
doesn’t know how to solve. Trust was more or less
same for about 40 years, then in 2000, dipped 40%
between 2000 and 2010. And now in 2020, they’re gonna
come out with more metrics. Everyone knows it’s
continuing to spiral down. So how can we return from
transaction to relationship to ultimately trust? And just to close with
some of these examples, of just in passing. I mean, I could tell you so
many amazing stories, right? But this is where we, where
volunteers take on a restaurant. We call it Karma Kitchen. You walk in and you have a
meal and your check reads zero. It’s zero because someone
before you has paid for you, and you are trusted to pay
forward whatever you want. Completely in the face of
dominant paradigm economics, which says we are wired,
they don’t say wired, because now there’s so
much science against it. They say you will aim to
maximize self-interest. So they looked at a bunch
of kids like us doing this. And they said, ah, yeah, that’s cute. That’s childish, and let’s
see how long it lasts. Went on and on and on
and now in 23 countries, UC Berkeley did a research
on this, and they said, the title of the seminal research paper, because they are like, what’s going on, you know, what is actually, because where we started in Berkeley, it was like top of all the Yelp reviews, because everyone felt so great
being served by volunteers, and people are like, what’s going on here? It’s just love. And so UC Berkeley did this research, and the title of that paper was, “Pay More When Paying for Others.” And a lot of people use this
in a strategic way also. They’re like, oh, good, I can get more if I engage
with people in compassion. Our shtick is, even if you pay more, man, I just trust in the deepcast
for you to pay it forward. So what does that look like? And what happens in an ecosystem? You take over just one
restaurant, say 50, 100 people. And no one is paying for
themselves, no transactions. You are all paying forward, you are trusted to be in that community. What happens in such a space? Incredible transformations. You can try it anywhere in the world, with any kinds of constraints, and you’ll see the same kind of phenomena. We have seen it all over the world. And not just that, we had
a rickshaw driver in India. He says, “You know, I
really believe in love.” He lives in a place that’s like this big, and most of them sleep outside,
this is their shared area. He needs the income from,
it’s like day-to-day, he needs that income to
take care of his family. But he says, “You know what? “I want to change the system.” And what does he do? He says, “You sit in my rickshaw, “no transactions, there’s no meter.” And you are trusted to pay it forward. And people ask him, he says. So how does it work? Are you able to get by? And he says, “Yeah, more or less. “I still get the same amount. Some people pay more,
some people pay less.” But he says that’s not the real metric. That’s the book of my material wealth. But here is the book that
you should really read. This is where I ask people how did you feel sitting in my rickshaw? And people’s lives are transformed. This is not Bill Gates
telling you to be generous after accumulating so much. This is a guy who just believes that if I treat you with love, you will respond to that
love with greater love. That if I smile, I
don’t run out of smiles. I actually have more smiles to give. If I hug, I have more hugs to give. This is the regenerative law of love. But our material systems are
not designed in that way. So this guy’s like, the buzz of town. And everyone’s like, who’s doing this? How are you doing this? And he says, “You know what? “It’s just me, and you can do it too.” Turn it around. This guy does it with his magazine. He says only offerings of gratitude. An incredible magazine, an art magazine. This woman does it, this woman does it with
her acupuncture clinic. Same thing. Can you imagine going in someplace, and you are treated as, not as like somebody
who’s out to suck value, but somebody who has multiple
forms of wealth to give, including financial capital. It’s not like being allergic
to financial capital, but it’s like putting
it in the larger canvas. And it just creates
such a deep engagement. So, that’s the question. How do we shift from transactional
relationships to transformation? And these are the kinds of things that many Gandhians think about, many Gandhians live into it. And I think these are very
relevant for our society. I’ll skip this in the interest of time, but you know, it’s a very touching, or should I play it? Okay, it’s really powerful,
it’s like 60 seconds. This is a clip from Attenborough’s film, it’s Gandhi’s funeral scene, and it actually happened in
real life too, this exact quote. – [Man] (speaks in foreign language) (horse snorts) – The object is massive tribute died as he had always lived. A private man without wealth, without property, without
official title or office. Mahatma Gandhi was not
the commander of armies, nor a ruler of vast lands. He could not boast any
scientific achievement or artistic gift. Yet men, governments, dignitaries
from all over the world have joined hands today to pay homage to this little brown man in the loincloth who led his country to freedom. In the words of General
George C. Marshall, the American Secretary of State, “Mahatma Gandhi has become the spokesman for the conscience of all mankind.” He was a man who made
humility and simple truth more powerful than empires. And Albert Einstein added, “Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this
ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth.” – No wealth, no property,
no title, no office. Humility was his greatest weapon. You’re like, how in the world did he shake the world without anything. Of course, it wasn’t that
he didn’t have anything, but he didn’t lead with
any of these resources. And as the last visual
I wanna leave with you, and I think is a testimony
as to why we’re all here, in Fresno, talking and remembering Gandhi in so many amazing ways,
and so many different ways. I mean, I’m not saying this is
the right way to view Gandhi, this is just my way to view Gandhi. This is just what has
worked has in ServiceSpace. And just sharing that
story, that’s a story, there are so many amazing
stories that we heard. But here was this simple
man, post-independence. Nobody even wanted to
go with him to Noakhali. He was doing these humble acts, and here we are so many years later, remembering him, trying to embody him, in whatever ways that we’re moved to. And this is a photo of a living bridge in the state of Meghalaya. It rains a lot. They tried to build these cement bridges. They come in with their systems. They come in with their tools. They come in with their architects. And they say, let’s
build a bridge in like, x amount of time, and none
of, all of them collapse. But you know what stays? These living bridges. These are roots of trees
connected to each other. It takes hundreds of generations to create one of these bridges. Because every generation knows, that your job is to take that tiny root and connect it to the next root. And take that tiny root, and the next generation
will connect it to the next. And guess what? So many generations later, you have this incredibly
resillient and rich bridge, that is able to hold a whole lot more and that cannot be
destroyed just as easily. And so you look at this, and
I think the call of the hour, is not to go for the sensational, not to create change tomorrow. But to actually embody these principles so it creates this living bridge. And all to often, people say, well, how can I, what can I do? And I think it’s about all of us, tapping into that heart of compassion. Outside you’ll see a bunch of smile cards. Do a small act of kindness. But this is an experiment, you don’t have to use a smile card. But it’s helpful, you do
a small act of kindness, pay a toll for the car behind you, tells the person you
don’t know who did this, it’s anonymous, but don’t
let the change stop with you. Pay it forward, do something
kind for somebody else. And if you think deeply about it, man, we all start with nine
months of an act of kindness. Are we ever gonna be able to pay it back? But are we, at some point, do we say, oh, okay, I’m done with that. Now I’m entitled to all of this. But what happens if you
stop that entitlement trap, and you say, look, I’m just
paying forward in gratitude. Do you think we’ll run
out if we keep giving? Talk to people who have
done that their whole lives, and they’ll tell you that actually you end up getting way
more back in return. And that gratitude propels you to pay back even all
that you have received. And bit by bit by bit you create an incredible ripple effect, but you create an incredible field, inside your heart, and
outside in the world. And in that field, arises
trust, arises transformation, and arises very different
patterns of innovation. And if we’re gonna survive, all these latest trends of monetization and commodification and marketization and militarization and mediafication, if we’re gonna survive all of that, it will need you and I to step
into that place of kindness. And to remember, in a gentle
way, we can shake the world. Thank you so much. (audience applauds)

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