Ivan Zamorano

Acupunture Treatment

What is Demography in Community Medicine / PSM

What is Demography in Community Medicine / PSM


Hi…welcome to abmbbs….one of our subscribers….Dr.
Ayesha Iqbal…had asked for a video on the chapter of “Demography” from the PARK
TEXTBOOK of COMMUNITY MEDICINE….so this video is made on her request….. Now the 1st thing you should know about this
chapter is that PARK contains a lot of data on the current demographic status of india….these
numbers keep changing from year to year & from edition to edition….I will be dealing with
them in another video…in this video I will be talking about the basics & core concepts
of demography which does not really change much. So what is demography? Demography is the scientific
study of human popuation… What are the different demographic processes…fertility,
marriage, mortality, migration &…..social mobility. Next we come to Demographic cycle….As you
can see it has 5 stages…High Stationary, Early Expanding, Late Expanding, Low Stationary
& Declining…..The high stationary stage has both high birth rate & high death rate…so
they end up cancelling each other…& the net population remains constant…India was
in this stage till 1920……..Next…….is the Early Expanding stage….here the birth
rate remains high but the death rate declines…possibly due to better healthcare facilities..so..the
net population increases….Next is the Late Expanding Stage…..here the death rate declines
further but the birth rate also starts declining….so in total the population still continues to
grow,…..India now belongs to this stage………..Next is the Low Stationary Stage….here both the
birth rate & death rate decline & they both cancel each other….so the net population
remains constant……Finally there is the Declining Stage….here the net population
begins to decline because birth rate is lower than death rate….Germany & Hungary are currently
in this stage…. Next we come to this graph….this is not
given in PARK but I feel everybody should know this graph because it helps to understand
the concept of Demographic Cycle better……the numbers here denote the stages ….the pink
line stands for the birth rate , the blue line shows the death rate &…..the red line
denotes the total population….so…once again quickly….in the 1st stage or high
stationary stage the birth & death rate is high, so the net population is constant….in
the 2nd stage or Early Expanding Stage the death death rate decreases but the birth rate
remains constant…so net population increases…in the 3rd or Late Expanding Stage the birth
rate begins to decline but the net population still continues to rise…4th stage or Low
Stationary Stage stabilizes the population & finally the 5th or Declining Stage causes
the population to decline because birth rate goes below death rate… Next tell me what is demographic window? It
is that period of time in a country when the working age population is more…that is when
people above 65years denote less than 15% of the population & people below 15 is less
than 30%….India will be in this stage from 2010 to 2050…. Next is Demographic trap….It is that time
when population growth is high due to high Birth rate & low Death Rate…..it basically
denotes stage 2 of the demographic cycle Next we come to some definitions…it can
get a bit boring for the next 45 seconds but trust me its important….1st is Crude Birth
rate…it is the number of live births per year per 1000 mid year population.
Crude Death Rate is the number of deaths per year per 1000 mid year population.
Annual Growth Rate is Crude Birth Rate – Crude Death Rate
Finally Growth Ratio is Growth Rate X 100 Next we come to Population pyramid…it is
a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population…..this
is where things get interesting….now as you can see it is a double histogram….back
to back…the left one denoting males & the right one denoting females….population is
plotted on the X axis & age is plotted on the Y axis…If you want to know more about
histograms you can watch our video on Biostatistics….the link is available here…..Now..coming back
to this diagram….as you can see the population pyramid of India has a broad base & a narrow
top….it means India has a higher proportion of young individuals….the population pyramid
of Switzerland on the otherhand..is spindle shaped with a bulge in the middle & tapering
ends….it means there is higher proportion of adults…..
Next….if you look closely……. you will notice… that in the population pyramid of
Switzerland the male……. & female sides are equal…that is, the graph is symmetrical….this
denotes that the sex ratio is good ……………..but…in case of India ……..the line on the male
side is larger….this denotes lower sex ratio……. which is bad….
Finally…if the population pyramid is taller it means life expectancy is more…& vice
versa….why…because the Y axis denotes age remember… Next is Sex Ratio…it is the number of women
per 1000 males…Sex Ratio is an important indicator of the status of women in a society… Next is the Child Sex Ratio….it is the number
of female children 0 to 6 years age per 1000 male children 0 to 6 years age….Now in order
to understand the importance of Child Sex Ratio I need to give you 1 data….The Sex
ratio of India as per 2011 census is 940 where as the Child Sex Ratio is 914……This is
alarming….this means 2 things….one…female foeticide is common & two….India’s Sex Ratio
will further decline in future… Next we come to Dependency Ratio…In order
to understand dependency ratio you need to 1st understand what do you mean by dependents…dependents
in a society are people above 65years & below 15years…..so dependency ratio is the ratio
between population below 15 years & population above 65years ……by the population between
15 to 65years.. So what do I mean when I say the Dependency
Ratio is…say…0.62….it means 100 people support 162 people Next we all know the word Literate…but how
do you actually define it…well in India we define it as a person who can read write
with understanding any 1 language & is above 7 years age
But…UN …defines it as the ability to read & write a simple sentence in any language Finally we come to the topic of Fertility
…PARK defines fertility as actual bearing of children
So… what is is General Fertility Rate…it is the number of live births per 1000 women
in reproductive age group….that is 15-44 years…in a given year General Marital Fertility Rate is the number
of live births per 1000 married women in reproductive age group (15-44 years) in a
given year Finally ….before ending I will introduce
you to 2 more rates….they are very important….1st is Gross Reproduction Rate…it is defined
as the average number of girls that would be born to a woman if she experiences current
fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span & assuming there is no mortality… Net Reproduction Rate on the other hand is
the number of daughters a newborn girl will bear in her lifetime assuming current fertility
pattern persists & there is no mortality… .Always remember to achieve India’s target
of 2 Child norm…..Net Reproduction Rate has to become 1…..&……. Net Reproduction
Rate will become 1 when …….Couple Protection becomes atleast 60%……so now you must be
thinking what is Couple Protection Rate….it is the per cent of eligible couples protected
against child birth by contraception. This brings us to the end of this video.You
can also watch the other videos in this channel.The link is available here. Guys….thank you for watching this video…Please
be sure to like , share & subscribe if you like our work….. You can also suggest us
topics to do videos on by commenting on the section below…….Bubyeeee……& happy
learning..

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